Northern Maritime Surveillance

Northern Maritime Surveillance

mission
Northern Maritime Service shall assess requirements for maritime surveillance in ocean areas where coastal surveillance assets, technical limitations of systems such as LRIT and VMS and environmental hazards such as icebergs and sea ice limit the capability to detect large fishing vessels, vessels providing logistic support to fishing vessels, commercial vessels, passenger vessels and, in the Baltic, small go fast vessels.

 

Areas of interest for NCA (above) and FNA (below)

 

The objective of the service is to provide positions of non-reporting vessels to the end-user, less than 30 to 60 minutes from satellite acquisition. The KSAT vessel detection service provides a snapshot of vessel activities in a certain area. Vessels are detected in satellite imagery and for each vessel, information about geographical location (latitude/longitude), estimated vessel length and heading are provided. Combining the satellite based information with other available vessel tracking systems (VTS, AIS, LRIT, VMS, etc), the non-reporting vessels can be highlighted and reported. Utilising the KSAT network of ground stations this service can be provided for areas all around the world.

 

Currently three institutional users are committed as end-users for the project; the Finnish Navy in the Baltic Sea, and the Norwegian Coastal Administration and Norwegian Defence Joint HQ in the Barents Sea.

 

service at the end of the project

Towards the end of the project, the user will receive an improved service. More specifically, the following improvements will be implemented:

  • Wide Swath High Resolution Surveillance

For the wide swath high resolution surveillance, the plan is to take 4 images with Wide Fine Mode in May 2013 and 2 images with Wide Fine Quad in April/May 2013. The plan for the Quad mode is to test it in icy conditions. The images will go through the FFI ship detector for performance assessment. The experience gained from this first test will be used to plan a new test campaign with around 4 images in the desired mode in 4th quarter of 2013.

  • VTS-system upgrade for Vardø-VTS

The NCA has recently entered into a contract with Kongsberg Norcontrol to provide new VTS-systems for all the NCA VTSs. Although it within MARISS was developed a prototype VTS-application for the Vardø-VTS to test and use during the demonstrations it is based on the previous version of the VTS-system and is hence outdated and not state-of-the-art. Also based on the service utility feedback received from Vardø-VTS in MARISS it is clear that in order for them to use the service operational and received the expected results they need to have it integrated in a VTS-system that can be evaluated and validated operationally and not as a stand-alone prototype on the side.

 

 

service details

KSAT’s Service chain for Northern Maritime Surveillance.

 

  • Input Data
    • EO:
      • RADARSAT-2
      • Cosmo-Skymed
      • TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X
    • In-Situ :
      • Coastal AIS from NCA/HELCOM
      • SAT-AIS from AISSat-1, LuxSpace/ORBCOMM and exactEarth
      • Forecast wind speed/direction and wave significant height/period from met.no
      • Wind speed/direction from SAR data
  • EO Data Processing
    • RADARSAT-2, Cosmo-Skymed and TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data downlinked in Tromsø, Svalbard or Grimstad. Level1b processing performed in Tromsø.(CSK/TSX can also be received as level1b from their respective providers) 
  • Ship detection algorithms: K-distribution CFAR algorithm is used on the SAR data
  • Quality control:
    • The automatic ship detection results are visually QA checked by operators before it is allowed to enter in the following steps in the service chain (correlation and distribution). The operators remove false detections and add any missed targets.
  • Satellite AIS data processing :
    • AIS data from AISSat-1 downlinked at Svalbard and fed into the NCA AIS system that KSAT connects to.
    • exactAIS data is acquired similar to AISSat-1 but from a live NMEA stream provided by exactEarth, it is hence treated the same way.
    • Vesselsat-2 data is downloaded from LuxSpace using secure FTP, and the data is provided as NMEA formatted files that are decoded and stored in the local KSAT AIS archive.
  • Data Integration and Assimilation
    • Correlation of vessel detections with static surface objects (oil rigs, wind mills, buoys, etc.) using a proximity method. The proximity distance is configurable.
    • Correlation of vessel detections with dynamic surface object, i.e. with coastal and satellite AIS data. The AIS data is matched to the time of the vessel detection by interpolation/extrapolation of the AIS data, the AIS data is then “corrected” for the Doppler-shift before a proximity method is used for the matching of AIS and vessel detections. The proximity distance and time difference between the AIS data and time of vessel detections are configurable.
  • Data Dissemination

    KSAT’s Vessel detection product shown in the VTS system at Vardø-VTS (Norwegian Coastal Administration).

     

    KSAT’s Vessel Information Browser. Green objects = correlated VDS/AIS, red objects = non-correlated VDS, and blue objects = non-correlated AIS.

    • Output Product Specification :
      • Vessel detection (VDS): GML/KML/OTH GOLD format with the following information on the detected vessels:
        • Time of detection
        • Position
        • Size, i.e. length and beam in meters
        • Heading in degrees, if it can be estimated
        • Confidence
      • Correlation: GML/KML format with the following information on the vessels:
        • Correlated vessels: Available information from both the VDS and AIS data, including estimated AIS position at time of VDS.
        • Non-correlated AIS vessels: available AIS information
        • Non-correlated VDS vessels: available VDS information
    • Delivery: An email notification that new/updated service product(s) is available is sent from KSAT to the users. If the user has implemented direct access to the KSAT Geoweb from the VTS system the products will be viewed directly on the VTS screen, as shown in the following Figure 2‑6. If not, they then use the KSAT vessel information browser (see Figure 2‑7below) to access and view the service product from the KSAT Geoweb service. The vessel detection on KML format can also be downloaded from the browser.

       

  • Required performances
    • Response time: > 12hours
    • Update time: 24-48 hours
    • Delivery time: < 60 minutes
    • False alarm rate: < 10%
    • Probability detection: Better than 90% for vessels larger than 25m in wind speeds up to 12 m/s
    • Location accuracy: better than 200 meters
  • After the project: future improvements
    • ​Time period: Next 3 years

       

      • Improved ship detection near ice-infected waters by inclusion of ice-edge masking for the automatic ship detection performance

         

      • Improved ship detection performance by introduction of RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR SLC products that can use the IHP method

         

      • Improved ship detection by integration of improved method for fusing of multi-polarimetic data

         

      • Improved target detection and parameter estimation by wake analysis

         

       

    • Time period: 3-5 years

       

      • Improved ship detection near ice-infected waters by inclusion of ice-edge masking for the automatic ship detection performance

         

      • Improved ship detection performance by introduction of RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR SLC products that can use the IHP method

         

      • Improved ship detection by integration of improved method for fusing of multi-polarimetic data

         

      • Improved target detection and parameter estimation by wake analysis

         

       

    • Time period: Service continuity, improvement and enlargement in 5-10 years:

       

      • Introduction of new sensors like multiband, multipolarisation SAR data for improved ship detection and classification

         

      • Introduction of new RADARSAT, C/S and Sentinel- follow-on missions for improved coverage frequency

         

      • Introduction of the operational combined use of wide area covering (ScanSAR type) with high resolution multiparameter SAR data allowing:

         

        • Improved capabilities for identification of special areas of interests for maritime security in wide coverage data

           

        • Fast turnaround acquisition in high resolution data for identified interesting areas

           

        • Fast delivery of information derived from high resolution data with improved capabilities for classification of detected vessels